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Responding positively and negatively to certain accents seems to persist36 according to these speakers, and awareness of accent differences and named accent varieties is certainly high. These comments seem to send mixed signals. While perhaps Windsor Lewis is right in that prejudice against perhaps mildly regionally-flavoured speech is disappearing, there still seems to be a persistent notion ps a prestigious form of speech Wo,en can afford social advantage in the la context.

Rosewarne and Cogglefor example, have pursued the line that RP even- tually will be replaced by Estuary English as the new standard English.

Nolan also explicitly rejects the idea that EE is the new prestige form fc: While this very Fof don-flavoured form of middle class speech EE is flourishing in the media, it is not well- accepted by all, and thus does not clearly correspond to the idea of a prestige accent. Maidment and in academic studies see Giles et al. RP lacks a regional affiliation, and thus is not sug- gestive of regional stereotypes. As Wells a: Nonetheless, the idea that RP fr the suitable reference model persists in recent textbooks; this partly reflects the added practical advantage that RP is already well described.

Mees and Collins Every language Women for sex in Milroy pa a number of different accents. You probably know that London and Glasgow both have quite distinct accents, spoken by most of the people who live in these areas.

Nevertheless, unless you want to take on board the specific regional associations, neither is really suit- able for you to imitate. It can be srx as the common denominator of the speech of educated English people. The English we describe in this book is the speech of the average modern RP speaker. One of its strongest opponents is R.

So although standard textbooks, Women for sex in Milroy pa their most updated editions, de- scribe a variety which is already being left behind by younger speakers, it is not a great disadvantage in my view to Women for sex in Milroy pa behind current trends in pronunciation.

Sxe how we might go about defining changes Ladies looking sex Visalia California 93277 RP on this basis will be discussed in more detail in chapter 7. This is an important characteristic of Received Pronunciation which is often cited above ps others: Where does the idea of non-localisability come from?

Is it an absolute value, something we can precisely define? How is non-localisability to be judged? The history of this development has been described by Lynda Mugglestone in her study Talking Proper: The Rise of Accent as Social Symbol. For Ramsaran a: Hughes and Trudgill At the top of the triangle is RP, the non-regional accent associated with the highest social prestige. The widest regional differentiation can be found at the bottom of the tri- angle, representing the lowest end of the social scale.

RP social variation regional variation in pronunciation After Hughes and Trudgill Ramsaran aMllroy example, makes a distinction between synchronic and diachronic aspects of Milro.

Ward Non-localisability does not play a role in this scenario, since RP is envisaged as a prestige southeastern-based accent.

In his formulation, it Women for sex in Milroy pa prestige, not non-localisability, which should be regarded as the core of a defi- nition of RP. Mliroy Lewis in this regard makes an interesting point on the recent development of GB his General Sex in the 19507 term, see section 3.

He writes that It has begun to develop new streams diverging from the mainstream which are not regionally neutral, though the regions they are associated with are very broad ones. Wells also acknowl- edges this flux Women for sex in Milroy pa change in the following quote With the loosening of social stratification and the recent trend for people of working class or lower-middle class origins to set the fashion in many areas of life, it may be that RP is on the way out.

By the end of the cen- tury everyone growing up in Britain may have some degree of local ac- cent. Or instead, some new non-localizable but more democratic standard may have arisen from the ashes of RP: This leaves us with a complex view of non-localisability. The historical roots of the RP accent are to be found in the Southeast, Single wife seeking sex tonight Madeira Beach, according to several commentators, RP is still par- ticipating in linguistic change which is happening in the Southeast or perhaps the South in gen- eral as it always has done.

The quotation above from Wells The re- sults of the present study are in part intended to contribute to determining the role of non- localisability in present-day Women for sex in Milroy pa accents. As Wells has noted a: Wells chooses to identify RP speakers on Women for sex in Milroy pa basis of social class: In the present study, we use two features of social background to define a social group as the basis for RP: Jones spent just two years at Radley College, then a newly-founded Victorian minor public school with spartan conditions and indifferent teaching standards, now a prestigious HMC 40 boarding school charging expensive school fees and achieving excellent academic results.

This system of Victorian education for boys41 which provided them with gentlemanly manners and accents has been described in detail by Women for sex in Milroy pa This development coincided with a general period of reform of the public schools, especially following on Clarendon Com- mission, an inquiry into the public schools conducted from to In the Victorian era, in response to the rise of the new prosperous industrial middle class, more schools were founded, such as Radley, Haileybury, Lancing, Marlborough, among many others, aiming at emulating the traditions and standards of the older public schools.

Families with the necessary means had greater access to distant boarding schools from all parts of the country through increased Sexy wife want sex Palm Springs and access to new modes of transportation.

This helped to establish boarding as an important part of public school education Mugglestone Thus Mugglestone states that Removing boys from their local areas and the influence of local age-mates, and gathering them in a place where linguistic conformity was enforced not only by teachers but also by the boys themselves meant that adapting to the non-localised norms of speech ensured social Women for sex in Milroy pa vival.

Failure to conform was punished in several ways, some more brutal than others. Many contemporary comments on the effectiveness of this process survive. How do traditional public schools fare today? The independent sector now covers a wide range of schools, exclusive and se- lective schools alongside other seex selective, less expensive schools. Judging differences of status between schools is a very difficult task. For the purposes of this study, I was able to identify two concrete factors which could be used to separate schools into more or less prestigious groups.

These include the male boarding schools, some coeducational schools, many of which were formerly male-only, and day schools. Details of these school categorisations are given in chapter 5 section 5. But ofr one interviewee remarked, remembering her arrival at boarding school at age 9: The most traditional schools are probably the oldest and most expensive Milro boarding schools.

Asked about the hierarchical structure of their school, most Women for sex in Milroy pa could report that their school had a prefect system which enforced a particular order of authority within the school. Hierarchical differences between pupils could in the past be quite pronounced within the most traditional schools, but this changed somewhat after Women for sex in Milroy pa s.

Sampson Schools today vary in the extent to which hierarchy has been abolished. One of the inter- viewees in my corpus expressed the difference between her preparatory school and her public school in the following way: Some schools were more relaxed on clothing requirements: Many interviewees could also remember their school mottoes, either in Latin or English.

Some of those who attended boarding schools could remember special vocabulary: One speaker summed it up in this way: Another speaker talked about the contrast between earlier times Women for sex in Milroy pa now, with the school opening up to the community much more than in the past: Nonetheless, schools remain traditional in other ways: One interviewee described the animosity the school administration had to the popular idea among the boys of introducing football soccer.

How do the public schools see themselves in the s? For many schools, their public face is more visible than it has been in the past. Schools tend to be more integrated with the community in many ways. Official websites 50 are becoming more common, although some very exclusive schools Eton, for instance do not have their own official internet home page. Inde- pendent schools are now very concerned with academic success: Since the s, when the grammar schools were forced to become either comprehensive or independent, the independent schools have become Sampson They have become much more competitive with each other, compa- ring their scholarships and entries into Oxbridge and other universities, and concentrating more than ever on the rigours of A-level examinations which are Women for sex in Milroy pa keys to university entry…The intensive training for A- levels Women for sex in Milroy pa university entrance adds to their attractions to parents.

Competition for gifted pupils in the independent sector is Womem Their outward face as expressed through the website of their organisation, the Inde- pendent Schools Information Service, see footnote 50 emphasises academic achievement: UK independent schools achieve MMilroy very highest academic standards. Of the schools listed by The Times as achieving the highest GCSE re- sults inabout were independent schools. Nine Women for sex in Milroy pa of ten post-A-level leavers from independent schools go on to higher education.

At the primary level, most prep schools taking part in national curriculum testing report attainment sez well above the national average. It is sometimes claimed that this academic success is due to selective admissions policies.

Some independent schools do admit only children of the highest academic ability; many, however, admit a much wider range of ability. It is an economically-select middle class and above clientele which dominates the in- dependent sector. On the basis of this Milroh evidence that the elite school persists, what of the fate of the elite accent? This is an exit examination equivalent to the first year of A levels for those pupils not wishing to finish A levels.

As Adult wants casual sex Cammack Village saw above, some students Mllroy suggested a standard way of speaking might still make a difference to university selection through interview see page The modern Women for sex in Milroy pa of social class is itself a product of the industrialisation of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Mugglestone Industrialisation, the depopulation of rural areas and the concentration of workers in urban areas in the nineteenth century made large-scale production possible in a way it never was Women for sex in Milroy pa earlier times in Britain.

The British Empire, due to a need for civil servants and army officers, provided em- ployment for well-spoken Mulroy school graduates; in the first ln of the twentieth century, the BBC, alongside the civil service, the military, and the Law, preferred to employ such people on the role of BBC in propagating Received Pronunciation, see the Horny women in Joppa in Mugglestone At the present time there is no doubt in the minds of most sociologists that social stratifi- cation remains a central aspect of British society.

Sociological work continues on the con- struction of socioeconomic indices for example, the CAMSOC model employed in this study; see chapter 5. Rose Inequalities in access to education as can be seen in the Looking for practice date of the independent sector as discussed abovejobs, and living stan- dards still exist see also Sampson Women for sex in Milroy pa their introductory chapter Adonis and Pollard summarise present-day Britain thus Cultural distinctions remain legion.

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Accents, houses, cars, schools, sports, food, fashion, drink, smoking, supermarkets, soap operas, holiday destinations, even training shoes: There has been no mass apostasy since.

And underpinning these distinctions are fundamen- tal differences in upbringing, education Tonight is my last chance occupations.

The idea that Britain is becoming a classless society is, according fod Adonis and Pollard Women for sex in Milroy pa Adonis and Pollard claim that the professed goal of a meritocratic society obscures the fact that economically-determined segregation into different forms of education is a Women for sex in Milroy pa factor in the ability of talented pupils to achieve.

As Adonis and Pollard write Meritocracy in modern Britain is mostly the creed of the elite, not the mass, and it is practised fpr faithfully in the old public and grammar schools serving a predominantly professional and managerial clientele. By the time selection for higher education comes around for such independent school pu- pils, years of social advantage and specialised training have placed them well at the front of the field in the race for good university places.

The following figures give some indication of the disparities between the state and private education systems in Britain. As Adonis and Pollard Type of School Applications No. As Women for sex in Milroy pa as May54 Decca Aitkenhead wrote of the interview system of selection for Oxbridge entrance continuing to favour private school students. Halsey Although…inequalities persist between classes, the internal composition and hence the status assumptions and outlook of the classes have drasti- cally changed.

At one end, the old upper class of the landed aristocracy has virtually disappeared, to be replaced by a more varied collection of 53 Source: One could speculate that this social mixing has also led to less agreement and confidence as to what a superior Housewives seeking sex Rogue River Oregon might be.

We know very little about the sociolinguistic structure of upper class and upper-middle class communities. Milroythen it seems that Mattson-MS adult dating online distinctive features of speech can probably still be found in public-school circles, given their persistent social exclusiveness, at least during the pe- riod of school and university education.

As generation has succeeded generation, this form of speech has not remained static, as we can see from the well-documented changes in RP in the course of this century e. As Wells predicted In addition to changing forms of speech over generations, public-school accents face an- other sociolinguistic hurdle. These changes gave the possibility Women for sex in Milroy pa more statusful employment to more of the middle class see Adonis and Pollard This in turn led to wider and more frequent social contacts between ex-independent and ex-comprehensive-school students.

Increasingly, positions of influ- Women for sex in Milroy pa were held by people with accents other than RP. As we have seen, privilege persists, and so we would expect linguistic differences to remain. But the implications of privilege and exclusiveness, perhaps also of conservatism and prejudice, Miproy a socially exclu- sive accent provoke are no longer always desirable or aspired to.

Dor comments by Crystal and 55 See Wimen for a study of the speech of the upper-class of Philadelphia. In the light of these conflicting pressures and ib prestige, the time has come for renewed empirical investigation and attitudinal evaluation of many linguistic features of modern RP, amongst them t-glottalling.

Writers such as Ramsaran a and Wells a have sug- gested that phonetic specification of RP is central to its definition. This can also lead to circularity: One way to gain a fuller picture will be to examine the situation empirically.

We have decided to use a quantitative sociolinguistic approach, and the present chapter considers its theoretical standpoint.

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Quantitative sociolinguistics, as an influential empirical sub-discipline of linguistics, has been the source of many advances in Women for sex in Milroy pa areas, especially in the area of language Mlroy e. Labov Another edited collection, the Handbook of Sociolinguis- tics Coulmas also bears witness to the vitality of the field, not just methodologically, but theoretically as well. Why exactly would sociolinguistics have something to contribute to a discussion of Re- ceived Pronunciation?

As we pointed out in the previous chapter, the Women for sex in Milroy pa RP is ambiguous. Women for sex in Milroy pa also refers to n- RP, the native speech of a small but economically affluent social class in Britain the speech community within which most speakers of n-RP grow up; see Wells Housewives wants real sex Lexington Virginia 24450 Thus, as Wells a suggests, we can ensure Women for sex in Milroy pa Womsn often that c-RP is up-to-date by examining the current status and features of n-RP.

The difference in recent times is that technological advances tape-recorders, computers have radically increased the amount of data which can be handled systematically. As I will show below, the social situation in Britain certainly leads us to deduce the continuing existence of a group Fuck buddy northern 69698 speakers who represent the upper end of the social scale, those speakers who reflect the modern equivalent of the sed RP-speaking group.

There is no reason to decide that RP no longer exists just because this socially-defined group no longer speak RP as originally described by Jones and Gimson Women for sex in Milroy pa point made in Wells a. Language is constantly in a state of flux and in a process of change, as is the social situation Milgoy which the speech community lives. MilroyEckert If this separate identity is no longer felt Noordwijk girl Noordwijk be relevant, that is a different matter: The idea that there is an increasing degree of linguistic pq but not identity between several socially-defined groups, and an increasing acceptance of non-RP speech in vari- ous contexts is probably a more appropriate reading of the current accent situation in Britain than proposals of a new variety called Estuary English or any of the other names that have been pro- posed 58 situated somewhere Woken the Southeast and somewhere between urban working class speech and RP.

There is also doubt within academic circles as to whether there is a variety EE that can be reliably identified cf. HaenniAltendorf a versus Crystal These schools hold their own well on league tables of A seex results and at university entrance.

Milrroy, the biggest factor of social change at the national level at the moment Bilton et al. The traditional bar- riers of birth have lessened, but only for those already near the top of the ladder, as Adonis and Pollard point out; for them, the comment below by Prince Edward, inAdonis and Pollard In many cases, there are now more opportunities than ever to do just about whatever you want. These observations call for closer examination and clarification. Within sociolinguistics — a term that I will use as a convenient shorthand for Labovian quantitative sociolinguistics — the focus is not on a language variety but on the linguistic item see Hudson The quantitative fr of speech data begins by observing and quantifying the occurrence of different realisations of a linguistic item called the linguistic vari- able.

Typically, sociolinguistic studies have examined Mjlroy at the Milroj of phonology. Because this group of h-initial words exhibits two possible pronunciations, h kn a linguistic variable. If the occurrence of one or other of ssex realisations of a variable shows a correlation with the social characteristics of a group of speakers, the linguistic variable is also referred to as a so- ciolinguistic Women for sex in Milroy pa.

The non-standard pronunciation of h mentioned above, which is the phe- nomenon known as h-dropping see section 3. The linguistic variable Crown City horny women is therefore also Womej sociolinguistic variable.

Several sociolin- guistic variables have in fact emerged repeatedly in studies of English around the world, and so- ciolinguists are presently engaged in examining the different status of local and more widespread English variables Chambers Furthermore, variation in pronunciation which we have now captured in the notion of a variable may Mliroy widespread and established, or new and emerging in a particular area.

As we saw in chapter 2, this was the basis of the division of socio- linguistic variables into indicators, markers, and stereotypes e. Syllable-final tWomen for sex in Milroy pa subject of the present study, is an example of a sociolinguistic stereotype in Dor. What did this shift consist of, and what are its implications? The idea that deductive top-down generalisa- tions about language were possible and valid perhaps the only valid ones has persisted throughout structuralist and generative linguistic thought.

In the most extreme formulation of structuralism, variation in performance as observed in day-to-day speech was seen as irrelevant noise; another version was that which Sapir acknowledged: All grammars leak.

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This situation changed somewhat during the s. This axiom was abandoned62 with the introduction of the idea of the sociolinguistic variable. As Chambers The variable as a structural unit represents a momentous innovation in linguistics. Hitherto, all linguistic units — phones, phonemes, morphemes, phrases, clauses — had been invariant, discrete, and qualitative.

The vari- able is none of these. Instead, it is Women for sex in Milroy pa, continuous, and quantitative. From this emphasis on parole, the data has emerged which has enabled sociolinguistic researchers to work towards theoretical generalisation. Notable examples include Labovwhich examines the Neo-grammarian model of language change on the basis of data on English vowel changes as observed in North America.

Contrasting heterogeneous speech with generative homogeneous ideali- sation, Weinreich, Labov and Herzog, Furthermore, Women for sex in Milroy pa The conference advertisement includes the following rather polemical position: It has also become clear that the main generative notion of the innateness of language is based on flimsy, non-existent evidence.

It seems to us quite pointless to construct a theory of change which accepts as its input unnecessarily idealized and counterfactual descriptions of language states. Long before predictive theories of language change can be attempted, it will be necessary to learn to see language— whether from a diachronic or a synchronic van- tage— as an object possessing orderly heterogeneity. The facts of heterogeneity have not so far jibed well with the structural approach to language…For the more linguists became impressed with the existence of structure of language, and the more they bolstered this ob- servation with deductive arguments about the functional advantages of structure, the more mysterious Wife looking nsa OH Stout 45684 the transition of a language from state to state.

Returning to the present study, we have noted above chapter 3 that two social factors are relevant to our discussion of RP: While exclusive edu- cation is a fairly transparent social factor in the British context, given the existence of the inde- pendent sector, social class is a more fuzzy category to deal with.

Whenever we speak we reveal not only some personal qualities and a certain sensitivity to the contextual style but also a whole configuration of characteristics that we by and large share with everyone who resem- bles us socially. Usually without any conscious effort on our part, we embody in our speech, as in Women for sex in Milroy pa dress, manners, and material posses- sions, the hallmarks of our social background. Our speech, from this per- spective, is emblematic in the same sense as is the car we drive or the way You must be a Montes claros habitually dress for work but, obviously, our speech is much less manipulable, much harder to control consciously, and for that reason much more revealing.

The social class to which we Women for sex in Milroy pa imposes some norms of behavior on us and reinforces them by the strength of the ex- ample of the people with whom we associate most closely. The sub- elements of social class include education, occupation and type of hous- ing, all of which play a role in determining the people with whom we have daily contacts and more permanent relationships. The overall fuzzy concept of social Women for sex in Milroy pa has often been framed as differences in occupa- tional status for the purposes of empirical sociolinguistic studies.

This follows the sociological tradition of the division of occupations into social classes. Bbw sex workers Karpacz following broad classification 63 Syntactic variation is a more problematic area than phonological variation; see Milroy Table 3 Social Class based on Occupation For the purposes of my own study, however, I wanted to use a more-fine-grained classifi- cation of occupations.

The social classification used in the present study, the CAMSOC scale, allocates scores to individual occupations, and was thus more useful to me than the six-way divi- sion above. It will be discussed in greater detail in chapter 5; see also Appendix 9. The theme of this thesis is that RP can of course also be seen in this sociolinguistic light. Sociolinguistically-sensitive generalisations can be made on the basis of observations of n-RP the datageneralisations which will influence the prescribed model c-RP.

Sociolinguistics points the way forward: The sociolinguistic in- terview is at the heart of the methodology, and the point Women for sex in Milroy pa departure for the analysis is the so- ciolinguistic variable. As we can see, this type of analysis does not at all imply that the variety RP disappears from view. On the contrary, from a sociolinguistic perspective, bundles of sociolinguistic vari- ables of different kinds and statuses join together to define distinct or united varieties of lan- guage in this case, British English.

The subject of this thesis, the examination of the present status of t-glottalling in the speech of a group defined in Women for sex in Milroy pa terms, represents just the begin- ning of a more extensive sociolinguistic enterprise. The status of t-glottalling can be compared with other sociolinguistic variables within the speech community we are interested in examining, in this case, upper middle class and Adult dating Liberty Center Ohio class speakers with an exclusive educational back- ground.

On the other hand, as Hudson says, the situation may not be as chaotic as this claim sets it up to be On the other hand, taking the indi- vidual linguistic item as the basic, pre-theoretical idea can lead Blue car arco station and blond hair surprisingly uniform patterns of agreement among speakers, and on this basis the variety is built up, because the previously confusing variation is now amenable to analysis.

As Hudson also points out This description should cer- tainly remind us of the discussion in chapter 3, and the fuzzy boundaries commonly said to be evident around Received Pronunciation. One other parameter of the study of speech which is crucial to sociolinguistics, and will be important here, is the notion of speech style. This ability is acquired from childhood and through adolescence see Chambers Within Received Pronunciation as well, we have to acknowledge there are systematic style dif- ferences which affect linguistic features.

As we shall see in chapter 6, there is a significant dif- ference between less formal, spontaneous speech Interview Style and more formal speech pro- duced in a situation where speakers concentrates on the form of their speech rather than on its content. The variable use of t-glottalling is sensitive to these style differences.

Sociolinguistic theory again has something to contribute here. Hudson As Hudson notes At least three different models Women for sex in Milroy pa been put forward to explain the sex-prestige pattern. The Women for sex in Milroy pa for sophisticated usage is defined by women…so we expect women to speak more standardly at all levels of society. T-glottalling is undoubtedly undergoing linguistic change in Britain. The question is, is t- glottalling a prestige innovation or a vernacular change, a change originating in and associated with lower-class speech?

T-glottalling in New Zealand is being led by young women in both social classes. This suggests it has some features of a Women for sex in Milroy pa vari- ant, as a linguistic form chosen by women tends to become a standard form see Hudson These observations will be important for an understanding of t-glottalling in modern RP, as we shall see in chapter 7. There is one more aspect of sociolinguistic theory which needs to be examined further here. This is certainly not always the case in theoretical discussions: Hudson formulates it in these ways Hungary sex finder There are no restrictions on the relations among varieties — they may overlap and one variety may in- clude another.

The defining characteristic of each variety is the relevant relation to society — in other words, by whom and when the items con- cerned are used…. Or is the pursuit of Received Pronunciation, as Wells The only fixed point, it seems to me, from which we can begin to examine this question without the circularity mentioned at the end of the previous chapter, is to examine to what extent there is a group which Women for sex in Milroy pa can identify in sociological terms.

This approach, starting with the so- cial group, is of course exactly the same approach as a study of the speech of Edinburgh, Detroit, Sydney, or any other regionally-defined variety. The only difference is that the relevant criteria Wife seeking casual sex ME Alfred 4002 social, not regional. As this is a sociolinguistic project, it aims to follow the methodological conventions which characterise the field.

The task of gathering and process- ing a large data sample requires that one begin with well-formulated hypotheses see chapter 1. These ideas dictate in large part where the search for suitable data can begin, and how it should proceed. Hudson includes a comprehensive description of the by now well- established methodological principles which have been followed by the first generation of socio- linguists. As Hudson points out, all of these processes are crucial and they can to some extent re- flect back on and influence each other.

This often happens through a pilot study, which gives some indication of errors and faults in the first research design, leading to improvements once the main study is to be carried out. This issue came to light very early in the project, since it is clear that the nature of the variety I was seeking to examine is rather special from a sociolinguistic point of view. Numerous studies within the Labovian sociolinguistic paradigm have concentrated on urban Naughty want hot sex Morehead City and working class speech in various cities and towns, Women for sex in Milroy pa.

This makes the choice of a fieldwork site more diffi- cult, and dependent Bloomington mn sluts other factors. The present study focusses on speakers from the upper middle class, as 3 reasons to date me form the core of mainstream RP see Wells a: Given the close historical association between RP and public schools I wanted to use public school background as one social characteristic of the speakers in my sample.

It was necessary to find a way to be able to interview public school or ex-public school students. I de- cided to avoid trying to interview professional people, as this would involve a good deal of prac- tical arrangement and recording at odd hours in different settings, thus introducing an element of environmental noise which could detract from the quality of the recordings, making auditory analysis more difficult.

The same could apply in a school setting, which also has the added com- plication of fitting interviews into a busy school schedule. The goal therefore was to find a fieldwork location with access to good recording facilities and a sizeable number of ex-public school students.

The choice of Cambridge came about mostly because I was in contact with the Department of Linguistics there in The De- partment has an excellent Phonetics Laboratory, including a soundproof recording studio.

I was able to gain access to the recording facilities for the period of my fieldwork. An advantage of interviewing at the beginning Single housewives seeking hot sex Fort Madison the academic term was that the students were not under pressure from assignment or examination deadlines. The age group I had decided to focus on, undergraduate and postgraduate students young adults was a group which I found easy to talk to, being a postgraduate student myself.

Perhaps more importantly, the students found it easy to talk to me. Francis Nolan for the use of departmental recording facilities. For equipment used: An additional factor which led to my obtaining free and unconstrained speech was that the majority of the interviewees were contacted through advertising in college common rooms and subsequent e-mail or telephone contact, and so the speakers had individually chosen to participate in the interview.

Cherry point NC sex dating interviews collected were evenly distributed between Humanities students and those studying other subjects such as Sciences, Music, or Medicine, among others.

The interviews followed an interview protocol Milrly Ap- pendix 2 Mulroy the interview progressed from initial questions on personal factual data birth date, family background, educational historythrough to more questions about teachers they re- 68 The Home Counties: See the UK map in Appendix These latter questions were de- signed to elicit longer passages of speech.

This was followed by questions about attitudes to accent and how accent relates to job prospects. Questions on parental education and occupation were also included, as well as detailed questions on the type of school the ni had attended, and their general attitudes towards school. The Women for sex in Milroy pa interview segments were around 25 minutes, the longest 50 minutes. After the question-and-answer section of the interview, the interviewees were asked to read a passage aloud a section of a chapter of Room with a View by E.

Forster, slightly adapted, see Appendix 3. This task was followed by the reading of Women for sex in Milroy pa short sentences and words Appendix 5. The interview followed the protocol of the interview, with the addition of an extra reading passage Ap- pendix 4 and some extra sets of words to the word list Appendix 6. This extra material was not subsequently used in the analysis, 70 but could be used in future studies.

The interviews concluded with Women for sex in Milroy pa short discrimination test in which speakers were asked to make judgements between two differing pronunciations of a set of twenty-four short sentences. The tape containing the sentences was played only Women for sex in Milroy pa ib the inter- viewees, with short pauses between each pair to enable the researcher to note the response on a schema.

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The discrimination test is discussed more fully in chapter 6. The student speakers recorded in Cambridge were paid a small sum of money for their time and willingness to participate in an interview.

The second reading passage was included as another possi- ble means of identifying RP speakers, but as it had not been included in the data, I used the Forster reading passage for the tape material sent to the independent Sex personals Arkadion. In total, then, I had 47 interviews from which to draw a sample for Women for sex in Milroy pa present project.

Eight of these interviews were with older speakers,71 as I Women for sex in Milroy pa considered taking older speakers into account at an earlier stage in the study. However, it proved much more difficult to obtain a sufficiently large sample of older speakers, and so I de- cided to disregard these. From the 39 remaining interviews, I selected a so-called judgment sample gathered on the basis of certain criteria.

My initial aim was that the sample should be equally divided be- tween male and female speakers, and large enough to enable statistical analysis. I regarded 24 as an ideal sample size balancing practical limitations and statistical requirements of representa- tiveness.

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The following table shows how the sample of 24 is related Free San Juan Puerto Rico webcams nude sexy sluts Jersey city the corpus of 47 inter- views.

Male Female Indep. Not used: Older speakers 8 4 0 4 0 Younger speakers 15 7 3 Women for sex in Milroy pa 2 Used: Judgment sample 24 12 0 11 1 Table 4 Ffor of the judgment sample I selected a group of 24 speakers who most nearly matched the educational background, social class, and Owensboro Kentucky women sex criteria that I used as a basis for the sociolinguistic investigation of modern RP.

The chosen speakers were to have attended public or Women for sex in Milroy pa schools. Parental occupation was also an important criterion, as speakers had to come from the upper end of the social scale. In practice, it was difficult to find enough female speakers who fulfilled all of the criteria. The young female speakers 17 in all I obtained were Free Singapore fuck buddies more heterogenous group so- cially and educationally than the male speakers 27 in all.

All twenty-four speakers chosen for the judgment sample were aged between 18 and 30 years for ages at Interview, see Appendix 1. With respect to educational background, all male speakers and eleven of the girls had attended independent schools.

Speaker F4, who matched the social class criterion attended a comprehensive school after attending an independent primary school. She was included because her family, although living in the midlands where the speaker grew uphad a southern public school background her father had boarded at preparatory and public school from the age of 7. All bar two speakers in the judgment sample had spent all their lives in Britain, one of whom F8 came to boarding school in Britain at the age of eight and had at- tended Miilroy schools overseas.

This speaker had British parents, and her parents had worked overseas in a diplomatic capacity. The other speaker F9 lived in Germany for two years and attended an English-speaking school before starting boarding school in Britain aged nine. All bar two had at least one parent born and brought up in Britain. These two M5, M12 had parents who had lived in Britain for many years, and they had themselves lived in Britain all their lives.

All speakers had parents whose occupations placed them at the upper end of Miltoy so- cial scale, being professional people: The reliance of sociolinguistics on analyses eex social class was emphasised at the end of the previous chapter. The model of social classifica- tion which is used here has been set up by academic researchers at Cambridge University see Prandy Prandy Women for sex in Milroy pa the Cambridge Scale in these terms: The Cambridge Scale is a measure of differential advantage as indicated by the tendency of those enjoying similar life-styles to interact socially on the basis of equality.

Like social class schemas it uses occupational groups as the basic units that it deals with, but unlike Mioroy it does not posit the existence of larger social groupings to which the Women for sex in Milroy pa then have to be allocated. The existence of a finely graded hierarchy, rather than a structure of discrete, homogeneous classes, appears Women for sex in Milroy pa have been borne out by evidence from the application of the scale.

The only speaker who scored below 60 was F9.

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Had the Cambridge Scale contained categories for Women for sex in Milroy pa ranks, the score would probably have been on or above 60 her father was a Wing Commander in the Royal Air Force.

While social class and educational criteria were important for the sociolinguistic aspect of the present study, it was not possible to ignore linguistic criteria entirely. I established a pho- nemic definition Want to be licked tonight mainstream RP see section 3. One listener IM heard all 24 speakers in the sample.

The other two judges heard eight- een speakers, 15 marked as 1 etc. The reading passage was chosen because it Women for sex in Milroy pa a neutral text which all speakers had read aloud. I preferred this approach fof choosing segments from the interview, be- cause a uniform text was the fot method to ensure that speakers were being judged on pronun- ciation alone.

On the basis of this reading passage, the judges were able to hear examples of vowel and consonant forms which are now said to be characteristic of younger RP including the fronted GOOSE vowel Wells aTRAP, DRESS which have more open qualities for younger speakersl-vocalisation, as well as voice quality.

While there was inter-speaker variation, with some informants showing more conservative RP features, and others showing newer features, the judges agreed that overall, clear regional af- filiations were tor to assign.

Four of the twenty-four ih were identified by some but 72 Dr. Inger Mees who made two separate analysesDr. Jack Windsor Lewis and Dr. Beverly Collins. I am very grateful to them all for taking the time to listen to the tape and provide detailed comments. These were M5, M8, Women for sex in Milroy pa, F9. The two male speakers Women for sex in Milroy pa judged to have London features only M8 is a Londoner. F4 has grown up in the Midlands. F9 has lived mainly in px South West of Britain, but also lived overseas Free mature dating in Eugene a few years attending an English-speaking school.

Not all judges made consistent and accurate regional identifications for these four individuals, however, and so for the purposes of the present study the group was deemed overall to Wife seeking nsa NY Copiague 11726 representative of non- localisable speakers.

One phonetician Beverley Collins, personal communication expressed it this way: In this section we will look more closely at the phonetic variants found in Women for sex in Milroy pa texts. Once the judgement sample of twenty-four tapes had been selected, an auditory analysis of the data was carried out by the researcher.

The first part is the interview material, connected speech collected on the basis of the Interview questions listed in Appendix 2. As this study does not Woman looking nsa Arleta to include discourse theory and discoursal structure, it is not relevant to try to separate parts of a longer interview from each other by way of intonational, paralinguistic or indeed lin- guistic means.

This has been done in other sociolinguistic studies e. The second reading passage Appendix 4 and Word lists Ap- pendices 5 and 6 were not used in the present study. The fact that I was concen- trating on word-final environments, many of which were pre-vocalic or pre-pausal, made it eas- ier to distinguish different types of glottal pronunciations. The pre-consonantal pronunciations were clearly the more difficult ones to distinguish, and the phonetic cues used in the analysis are discussed below.

Acoustic rather than auditory analysis is commonly used in sociolinguistic studies see e. LabovDocherty and FoulkesDocherty et Women for sex in Milroy pa.

Vowels are often analysed acoustically see e. Labov since plotted charts based on Women for sex in Milroy pa posi- tions are a well-established acoustic counterpart to Women for sex in Milroy pa analysis using the vowel quadrilat- eral e.

Ladefoged Acoustic techniques for investigating laryn- geal features are more complicated, since spectrograms alone can be ambiguous, although Do- cherty and Foulkes use spectrograms in their analysis of micro-level features of Tyneside and Derby glottalling.

More intru- sive techniques are sometimes employed to Wife wants sex tonight OK Moore 73160 activity at the larynx Roach But such techniques effectively restrict the scope of the study to examining items in isolation or in short texts read aloud, as in a more traditional phonetic type of study, and therefore also restricts the number of items which can be analysed.

Docherty and Foulkes provide an excellent model study. The choice of auditory analysis was also based on the fact that I was working with con- sonant pronunciations and not with vowels. Mees draws out the following distinction between consonantal variables and vowel variables. She writes that Variation in the pronunciation of consonants tends to be in terms of clearly distinguishable alternatives…whereas variation in vowels has a more continuous character…The discrete nature of consonantal variables makes it relatively easy to hear the difference between Women for sex in Milroy pa variants, and inaccurate observations are less likely to occur than is the case with vo- calic variables.

Each tape was first transcribed orthographically in full onto a computer file using a Sony Dictaphone Women for sex in Milroy pa, model BM89T, and the accompanying headphones. The coding convention was: The coding had to be in a standard form Women for sex in Milroy pa I wanted to use a computer programme to locate all in- stances of word-final t and then sort them into different groups according to variant and fol- lowing phonetic environment.

This procedure ensured human error was not involved in the counting procedure. The data collected in October was Women for sex in Milroy pa in the period January to April Looking to party with you for Exmouth ear-training Re wanting to play done together with my supervisor Inger Meeswho also later checked and confirmed part of the analysis.

In Mayall 24 tapes were analysed again. After a pause of several weeks, the 24 tapes were then analysed a third time. All in all, the entire sam- ple was listened to five or six in the case of the data times, Women for sex in Milroy pa for orthographic tran- scription, once to check the transcription text, followed by three or four, for the data sepa- rate analysis sessions.

Studies of New- castle English Milroy, Milroy and Hartley have also shown sociolinguistic difference between Sexy nude women in Dunbar Pennsylvania reinforcement or glottal masking, as it is in Newcastle and the newer glottal replacement.

Because previous analyses had referred to the surrounding phonetic environment in de- fining t-glottalling e. The oral and nasal stops were grouped together into the category termed Stops, abbreviated as S.

These phonetic categories prove to be highly statistically significant for the description of t-glottalling.

The following table shows the phonetic variants which were found in the various envi- ronments. We begin with the glottalised variants. Glottalised variants Glottal stop t-glottalling? Creak creak Glottal reinforcement? As Laver points out, The symbol [? A cessa- tion of voicing in the previous vowel without any accompanying distinctive [t]-onset was inter- preted as a glottal stop.

This variant could occur across all environments, at varying rates for dif- ferent speakers, and it is precisely this variant which forms the focus of this study, and its variant distribution will be discussed in detail in chapter 6. If the glottal closure is not quite complete, a distinct phenomena called creak, vocal fry or glottal fry is produced.

Creak, according to Laver Catford Mees whose glottalisation category covers glottal Women seeking casual sex Avalon Missouri, glottal reinforcement and creak.

As stated in this study, glottalling was the primary focus, and thus all other variantswhether con- taining a laryngeal gesture or not, were disregarded. Closure of the vocal folds as for the glottal stop has to be distinguished from the secon- dary articulation which we call glottal reinforcement. This is defined as Laver This consists of an articula- tory tendency to create a glottal constriction, which normally fails nev- ertheless to reach the maximum stricture of a full glottal stop.

Glottal reinforcement is represented here as either [? These glottally reinforced stops were easiest to hear before pause and continuant consonants. Before an oral stop consonant in the following word, they were more dif- ficult to hear.

It was not possible to distinguish Milrly The glottal stop removes People looking for sex in Warren Women for sex in Milroy pa these distinctive transitions. Collins and Mees b: Since there is only one hold stage, this can be regarded as glottal replacement. Another variant which is related to the glottally-reinforced stops is the ejective stop, an articulation using a glottalic egressive airstream.

This means that a complete glottal closure is held while the oral closure is Milrpy. The larynx is raised Laver Ejectives resemble glottally reinforced stops in that a glottal constriction is involved, but the relative timing of the two releases Women for sex in Milroy pa release and oral release is different, in that, in the case of an ejective stop, the oral release comes first.

The ejective stop has a dis- tinctive auditory character; Laver This variant occurred rarely, perhaps at a slightly higher rate for male speakers than female speakers, although probably not at the level of Womdn significance. Sxe included released voiceless segments of various kinds, on well Women for sex in Milroy pa voiced and tapped variants. This variant Women for sex in Milroy pa mainly before stops, since the Women for sex in Milroy pa Milroj the following consonant masks the release of the preceding alveolar stop.

Sometimes the force of the release approached affrication, represented as [ts]. The latter were more common than the former. The counted data was then Women for sex in Milroy pa to a table in Word format, and transferred to an Excel spreadsheet.

He argues Cassel-CA young milf its status as a single lexeme, and includes it in his analysis as word-internal glottalling.

His weakened forms include [s? For example, the data relevant to the Stop category, t before any of the oral stop or nasal consonants which could occur word- initially, was summed using an automatic function Women for sex in Milroy pa the spreadsheet.

The quantitative data for a single pq environment within a speech style was calculated as the percentage of glot- tal stops within a total number of instances of t. Having obtained percentages for individual speakers across five phonetic environments and two speech styles, the next step was to combine this data with factors related to social back- ground in order to illuminate the sociolinguistic status of t-glottalling.

The average age of the female speakers was 21 years, the males 24 years. The oldest males 2 speakers were 31 years old, the oldest females 2 speakers 24 years see Appendix 1. Parental occupation was used as the basis for the determination Beautiful ladies want nsa Beaumont social status see Appendices 8 and 9. Sex and region were used as major factors in the analysis here. The speakers were evenly divided between male and female.

The regional factor was included post-hoc, and did not form part of the original selection criteria. I divided the informants into groups according to the area in which the speakers had lived for the Girls from new caledonia nude of their lives. Dividing lines were placed between London, the Home Counties, and the rest of England.

Mklroy male speakers were concentrated in the Southeast, while the female speakers were concentrated in the Home Counties and the rest of England speakers from the South West, Midlands and north-west are included here. Although the female category has a more even distribution of region of origin, the differences in the sample sizes across the regions Women for sex in Milroy pa that better statistical significance can be obtained Women for sex in Milroy pa examining Region alone, that is by summing the male and female groups across regions.

For instance, there was a group of 9 speakers who had a parent born outside the UK. In the case of 2 of fr 9, both parents Girls looking for sex in Augusta been born outside the UK.

All of these speakers had however lived in the UK all their lives, and their parents had been in the UK for some time before they were born. This was not an entirely independent cate- foe, however: In addition, this subgroup comprised 7 male speakers Mileoy 2 female se, a fact which was not unimportant in sxe analysis, Women for sex in Milroy pa Milrpy shall see in chapters 6 and 7. One could argue that swx a non-obvious factor as parental origin was probably irrelevant to linguistic usage, given that the speakers themselves had grown up in Britain.

However, I felt Mklroy for the sake of a thorough analysis of the sociolinguistic data, such factors could well be in- vestigated to determine if significant differences were Love the sun looking to share. The primary and secondary education systems in Britain are complex ones due to several historical factors. I distinguished firstly between private primary education and local, county- supported primary education.

After attendance at early primary school which may be county- supported and local, or privatesome pupils progress to preparatory schools from around age 7 before attendance at public school from the age of 13 in some cases from Pupils who con- tinue Women for sex in Milroy pa local county schools until age Mklroy do also gain access to public schools, but they are probably in Women for sex in Milroy pa minority, at least in the case of the most prestigious public schools.

Primary 83 This is not the place for a complete Adult singles dating in Lowry city, Missouri (MO). of the British schooling system and its history; but see e.

Samp- sonDjursaa and Murphy In order to simplify the classification of speakers according to their primary education, I grouped the in- dependent primary schools together with the preparatory schools, and separate from the local primary schools. HMC membership schools include male-only schools; all 12 of the male inn in the sample had attended HMC schools.

In addition, 3 female speakers had attended co-educational schools which were also members of the HMC. It was not possible to determine whether ofr latter school had held membership of one of the two first groups, as it was not included in any database I could locate on the Internet. One speaker F10who had moved school at the age of 14, was classified according to the day school she attended as a GSCE and A level student.

See chapter 2, page 19 85 A very comprehensive Internet site with links to Women looking real sex Bapchule Arizona relevant pages can be found at http: They reflect school performance in public examinations at several levels of schooling. Having established Mjlroy social and educational factors, the Wkmen step in the analysis was to combine the various phonetic environments, the two speech styles, and the sociological factors in order to test for significance.

One commonly-used test in sociolinguistic studies 91 Womwn the chi-squared test. This test re- quires that the data come from independent observations, meaning that each individual in the study is represented by one Adult wants casual sex dating Billings Montana in the data matrix.

As each person in my data is repre- sented by five observations, their individual rate of t-glottalling Wo,en each of the five separate pho- netic environments, the chi-square test was inappropriate here. Other factors which affected the choice of statistical test included the relative power of different types of test with samples of the size investigated here.

Parametric tests are more sensitive to small sample sizes 24 is not a statistically large Miloy than non-parametric tests, and so a Milrou test was to be preferred.

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